Abbreviations and their Expansions

Abbreviations and their Expansions



AA: Anti-Aircraft; Author’s Alterations

AAAS: American Association of Advancement of Science

AAFI: Amateur Athletics Federation of Afro-Asian Games

AAI: Airport Authority of India

AAOU: Asian Association for Open Universities

AAPl:  American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin

APSO: Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organisation

AASU: All-Assam Students’ Union

ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations; American Broadcasting Company; Australian Broadcasting Company

ABM: Anti-Ballistic Missiles

ABSU: All Bodo Students’ Union

ABU: Asian Broadcasting Union

AC: Alternating Current; Ashok Chakra; Ante Christum (Before Christ)

ACAS: Airborne Collision Avoidance System

ACC: Auxiliary Cadet Corps; Air Coordinating Committee

ACD: Asian Co-operation Dialogue

ACL: Access Control List

ACU: Asian Clearing Union

AD: Anno Domini (After Christ)

ADB: Asian Development Bank

ADBS: Advanced Data Broadcast System

ADC: Aide-de-Camp

ADF: Asian Development Fund

ADRs: American Depository Receipts

AEC: Atomic Energy Commission

AERB:  Atomic Energy Regulation Board

AF: Audio Frequency

AFC: Asian Football Confederation

AFP: Agence France-Presse

AFSPA:  Armed Forces (Special Powers)

AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences

AILTA: All India Lawn Tennis Association

AIMA: All India Management Association

AIMCET: All India Common Entrance Fest for Master of Computer Applications

A1MO: All India Manufacturers Organisation

AIMPLB:  All India Muslim Personal Law Board

AINEC: All India Newspaper Editors’ Conference

AIR: All India Radio

AISNEC: All India Small Newspaper Editors’ Conference

AISSF: All India Sikh Students’ Federation

AITUC: All India Trade Union Congress

AIWHA: All India Women Hockey Association

AJT: Advance Jet Trainer

ALGOL: Algorithmic Language

ALH: Advanced Light Helicopter

am: Ante meridiem (before noon)

AMC:   Army Medical Corps

AMICE: Associate Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers

AMIE: Associate Member of Institute of Engineers

AMIEE: Associate Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers

AMU: Aligarh Muslim University; Asian Monetary Union

ANANDI: Area Networking Development Initiative

ANC: African National Congress

ANCA: Alternative Nuclear Command Authority

ANERT: Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology

ANMC-21: Asian Network of Major Cities-21

ANN: Asian News Network

ANZUS:  Australia, New Zealand and United States (Three-Nation Defense Pact)

AOC: Air Officer Commanding

AP: Andhra Pradesh; Associated Press

APASL: Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver

APCTT: Asia and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology

APEC: Asia Pacific. Economic Community

APHLC: All Parties Hill Leaders Conference

APM : Administered Price Mechanism

APPLE: Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment

APPU:  Asian Pacific Postal Union

APT:  Asia Pacific Tele community

ARC:   Administrative Reforms Commission; Agricultural Refinance Corporation

ARDC:    Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation

ARF:    ASEAN Regional Forum

ARP:    Air Raid Precaution

ARPANET: Advanced Research Project Agency Network

ARTRAC:   Army Training Command

ASCI:  Administrative Staff College of India

ASCON:    Army Static Switched Communication Network

ASEAN:  Association of South East Asian Nations

ASEM:   Asia Europe Meeting

ASI:   Archaeological Survey of India

ASIDE:   Assistance to States for Infrastructural Development for Exports

ASK : Aaykar Sampark Kendra

ASLV:    Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle

ASSOCHAM: Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry

AT&C Losses: Aggregate Technical & Commercial Losses

AT&T:    American Telegraphic and Telephone Co. Ltd.

ATC:  Air Traffic Control

ATGM : Anti-Tank Guided Missile

ATM : Automatic Teller Machine

ATR:  Action Taken Report

ATS:  Anti Tetanus Serum

AU:     African Union (formerly Organisation of African Unity)

AVARD:    Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development

AVC:  Army Veterinary Corps

AVSM: Ati Vishisht Seva Medal

AVTAR:  Army Vocational Training and Rehabilitation

AVUT: Association of Victims of Uphaar Tragedy

AWACS: Airborne Warning and Control System

AWWA:    Army Wives’ Welfare Association





BITS: Birla Institute of Technology & Sciences

BJP: Bharatiya Janata Party

BKKP: Bhartiya Kisan Kamgar Party

B.Com.: Bachelor of Commerce        
B.Ed.: Bachelor of Education           
B.Pharrn.: Bachelor of Pharmacy      
B.Sc.: Bachelor of Science              
B2B: Business to Business                      
B2C: Business to Consumer                     
BAC: Business Advisory Committee           
BAI: Badminton Association of India         
BALCO: Bharat Aluminium Company    ltd             
BARC: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre               
BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation       
BC: Before Christ                                  
BCCI: Board of Control for Cricket in  India: Bank of Credit and Commerce International        
BCG: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (preventive vaccine for tuberculosis)               

BCL: Bachelor of Civil law

BDO: Block Development Officer

BEL: Bharat Electronics Limited

BENELUX: Belgium. Netherlands and Luxembourg

BFA: Boao Forum for Asia

BGA: Blue Green Algae

BHEL: Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.

BHU: Banaras Hindu University

BICP: Bureau of Industrial Costs and Prices

BIFR: Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction

BIMARU: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh

BIMSTEC: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar. Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation.

BIPPA: Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement

BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards~ Bank of International Settlement

BKU: Bharatiya Kisan Union

BLOB: Binary Large Objects

BMW: Bayerische Motoren Warke AG

BOAC: British Overseas Airways Corporation (now British Airways)

BOLT: Build-Own-Lease-Transfer

BP: Blood Pressure

BPE: Bureau of Public Enterprises

BPO: Business Process Outsourcing

bps: bytes per second

BRAI : Broadcast Regulatory Authorities of India

BREAD : Basic Research Education And Development Society

BRIC: Brazil. Russia, India and China

BRO: Border Roads Organisation

BRPSE: Board for Reconstruction of Public Sector Enterprises

BSE: Bombay Stock Exchange

BSES: Bombay Suburban Electricity Supply

BSF: Border Security Force

BSI: Botanical Survey of India

BSNL: Bharat Sanchar Nigam

BSP: Bahujan Samaj Party

BSS: Bharat Sewak Samaj; Standard Specifications.


C2C: Consumer to Consumer

CAB: Civil Aeronautics Board; Central Advisory Board

CABE:    Central Advisory Board for education

CACCI:   Confederation of Asia-Pacific Chambers of Commerce & Industry

CACP:    Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices

CADA:    Command Area Development Agency

CAG:      Comptroller and Auditor-General w India

CAMELS: Capital Adequacy. Asset Quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity & Systems

CAN:      Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

Cantab:  Cantabrigienis (of Cambridge)

CAPART: Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology

CAPD:    Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

CAPES:   Computer-Aided Paperless Examination System

CARD:    Centre for Astronomical Research and Development

CARE:    Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere

CAS:      Chief of the Air Staff; Conditional Access System

CASE:    Commission on Alternative Sources of  Energy

CASI:     Centre for the Advanced Study of India

CAT:      Computerised Axial Tomography

CAZRI:   Central Arid Zone Research Institute Ltd.

CBDT:    Central Board of Direct Taxes

CBEC:    Central Board of Excise and British Customs

CBFC:    Central Board of Film Certification

CBI:      Central Bureau of investigation

CBM:     Confidence Building Measures Central CBR: Central Board of Revenue

CBRI:    Central Building Research Institute

CBSE:   Central Board of Secondary Education

CBT:     Children’s Book Trust

CBU:     Completely built-up

CCDP:   The Committee for Coordination on Disappearances in Punjab.

CCEA:   Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs

CCI:      Cricket Club of India; Cement Corporation of India

CCP:     Cabinet Committee on Prices CCS: Cash Compensatory Support

CD:      Civil Defence; Community Development: Certificate of Deposit: Compact Disc

CDAC:   Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

C-DAC:  Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

CDMA:   Code Division Multiple Access

C-DOT:  Centre for Development of Telematics

CDRI:    Central Drug Research Institute

CD-ROM: Compact Disc-Read Only Memory

CDS:      Compulsory Deposit Scheme

 CEC:      Chief Election Commissioner: Chief Executive Councilor

CECRI:   Central Electro Chemical Research institute

CEERI:    Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute

CENTO:  Central Treaty Organisation

CENVAT: Central Value Added Tax

CEO:      Chief Electoral Officer; Chief Executive Officer

CERC:    Consumer Education and Research Centre

CFC:      Chloro Fluoro Carbon

CFSL:     Central Forensic Science Laboratory

CGA:      Central Ganga Authority

CGF:      Commonwealth Games Federation

CGHS:    Central Government Health Scheme

CGI:       Common Gateway Interface

CGIAR:   Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CGS:      Centimetre Gram Second (units of measurement)

CHOGM:  Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

CHOGRM:       Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting

CIA:       Central Intelligence Agency  (U.S.A.)

CIB:       Credit information Bureau

CICA:     Conference on Interaction and confidence-building Measures in Asia

CID:       Criminal Investigation Department

CIET:     Central Institute of Educational Technology

CIGAR:   Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CII:       Confederation of Indian Industry

CIIL:      Central Institute of Indian Languages

C-in-C:   Commander-in-Chief C IS: Commonwealth of Independent States

CISF:     Central Industrial Security Force

CITES:   Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species

CITU:     Centre of Indian Trade Unions

CIWTC:  Central Inland Water Transport Corporation

CKD:      Completely Knocked Down

CLASP:   Child Labour Action and Support Project

CLAWS : Centre for Land Warfare Studies

CLB:      Company Law Board

CM:       Chief Minister; Common Market

CMA:     Coal Mines Authority

CMAG:    Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group

CMC:     Computer    Maintenance Corporation

CMEA:    Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

CMERI:   Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute

CMIE:     Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy

CMO:     Chief Medical Officer

CMP:      Common Minimum Programme

CNC:      Computerised Numerical Control

CNG:      Compressed Natural Gas

CNN:      Cable News Network

CNS:      Chief of Naval Staff

CO:       Commanding Officer

COAS:    Chief of Army Staff

COD:      Cash On Delivery: Central Ordnance Depot

COFEPOSA: Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act

COL:      Commonwealth of Learning

COMECON:     Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

COMESA : Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

COMEX:    Commonwealth Expedition

COMPS:   Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction Centre

CONCORD: Council of North Indian States for Cooperation and Regional Development

COPO:    Citizens Organisation for Public Opinion

COPRA:  Consumer Protection Act

COPU:    Committee on Public Undertakings (of Parliament)

CORDET:  Cooperative Rural Development [rust

CPC:      Civil Procedure Code

CPCB:    Central Pollution Control Board

CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animal\

CPF:      Contributory Provident Fund

CPHERI:  Central Public health Engineering Research Institute

CPIkNI1: Communist Party of India. (Marxist)

CPI(ML): Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)

CPI:       Communist Party of India CPI-IW: Consumer Price Index for industrial Workers

CPMT:    Combined Pre-Medical Tests

CPR:      Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

CPSU:    Communist Party of the Soviet Union

CPU:      Committee  on Public  Undertakings; Commonwealth Press Union

CPWD:   Central Public Works Department

CR:        Central Railway; Chakravarty Rajagopalachari (Rajaji)

CRIDA:   Central Research Institute for Dry-land Agriculture

CRIS:     Centre for Railway information systems

CRISIL:   Credit Rating Information Services of India

CRPF:     Central Reserve Police Force

CRR:      Cash Reserve Ratio CRRI: Central Road Research Institute

CRRID:   Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development

CRY:      Child Relief and You

CSCAP:  Council for Security Cooperation in Asia Pacific

CSCE:    Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

CSDS:    Centre for the Studs’ of Developing Societies

CSIO:     Central Scientific Instruments Organisation

CSIR:     Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

CSIRO:   Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CSIS:     Centre for Strategic and International Studies/Centre for Studies in Integrated Sciences

CSMCRI : Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Bhavnagar)

CSO:      Central Statistical Organisation

CSSRI:   Central Soil Salinity Research Institute

CST:      Central Sales lax

CT:        Computerised Tomography

CTBT:    Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

CTO:      Central Telegraph Office; Central Tractor Organisation; Chief Technical Officer

CTV:      Colour Television

CV:        Curriculum Vitae

CVC:      Central Vigilance Commission

CVR:      Cockpit Voice Recorder

CVRDE:   Combat Vehicles Research Development Establishment

CWC:     Central Warehousing Corporation: Chemical Weapons Convention

CWF:     Consumer Welfare Fund

CWPC:   Central Water and Power Commission

CWPRS:  Central Water and Power Research Station

cwt:       hundredweight (112 Ibs)


D & C:    Dilation and Curettage

D Phil:    Doctor of Philosophy

DA:        Daily Allowance; Dearness Allowance

DAE:      Department of Atomic Energy

DANICS: Delhi-Andaman Nicobar Island Civil Services

DAP:      Di-Ammonium Phosphate

DAVP:    Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity

DC:        Direct Current; Deputy Commissioner

DCC:      District Congress Committee

DCL:      Doctor of Civil Law

DD:        Doordarshan

DDT:      Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (insecticide)

DEAL:     Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory

DEG:      German Investment and Development Company

DFDR:    Digital Flight Data Recorder

DG:        Director General. Dei Gratia (By the Grace of God)

DGAD:    Directorate-General of Anti-Dumping And Allied Duties

DGCA:    Director General of Civil Aviation

DGCEI:   Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence

DGHC:    Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council

DGMS:    Directorate General of Mines Safety

DGS & D: Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals

DGTD:    Directorate General of Technical Development

DHSD:    Duplex-High Speed Data Service

DIA :     Defence Intelligence Agency

DIC:       District industries Centre

DIG:       Deputy Inspector General

DIR:       Defence of India Rules

DLO:      Dead Letter Office (see RLO)

DM:       District Magistrate

DMA:     Direct Memory Access

DM1:      Directorate of Marketing and Inspection

DMK:      Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

DMRC:    Delhi Metro Rail Corporation

DMRTS:  Delhi Metro Rapid Transport System

DNA:      Di-oxyribonucleic Acid (biological elements)

DO:       Demi-Official

DOARS : Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System

DOD:      Department of Ocean Development

DOE:      Department of Electronics

DOTS:    Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course

DP:        Displaced Person

DPBS:    Developmental Press Bulletin Service

DPI:       Director of Public Instruction

DPSA:    Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft

DPT:      Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (Vaccine)

DRDO:    Defence Research and Development Organisation

DRES:    Department of Renewable Energy Sources

DRF:      Depreciation Reserve Fund

DRI:       Differential Rate of Interest; Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

DSB:      Digital Satellite Broadcasting

DSC:      Distinguished Service Cross

DSIDC:   Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre

DSL:      Digital Subscriber Line

DST:      Department of Science and Technology

DTAA:    Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

DTH:      Direct-to-Home

DTS:      Digital Theatre System

DVC:      Damodar Valley Corporation

DVD:      Digital Versatile/Video Disc

DVM:     Doctor of Veterinary Medicine

DWT:     Dead Weight Tonnes


E & 0 E:  Errors and Omissions Excepted

EAC:      Employment Assistance Centre

EARC:    Economic Administrative Reforms Commission

EAS:      Employment Assurance Scheme

ECA:      Essential Commodities Act

ECAFE:   Economic Commission for Asia and Far East (now ESCAP)

ECE:      Economic Commission for Europe

ECG:      Electrocardiogram

ECGC:    Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation

ECHR:    European Commission on Human Rights

ECM:      European Common Market

ECOSOC: Economic and Social Council (UN)

ECS:      Electronic Clearance Service

EDBI:     Educational Development Bank of India

EDCIL:    Educational Consultants India Ltd.

EDI:       Electronic Data Interchange

EDMS:    Electronic   Document Management System

EEC:      European Economic Community

EEC:      Electro Encephalogram

EEZ:      Exclusive Economic Zone

EFA:      Education For All

EFF:      Extended Fund Facility

EFTA:    European Free Trade Association - eg. exempli gratia (for example)

EGP:      Exterior Gateway Protocol

EIL:       Engineers India Limited

E-in-C :  Engineer-in-Chief

EIS:       Executive Information System

ELCINA:  Electronics Compone0~ Industries Association

ELJSA:    Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

ELSS:     Equity Linked Saving Scheme

E-mail:   Electronic Mailing

EMF:      Electro Motive Force

EMG:     Electro Myograni

EMS:     European Monetary System

EMU:     Electric Multiple Unit, European Monetary Union

ENS:     Eastern Newspapers Society EOU: Export Oriented Units

EPABX:  Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange

EPCG:    Export Promotion Capital Goods

EPCH:    Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts

EPCJ:     Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative

EPF:      Employees Provident Fund EPO: Earth Parking Orbit

EPRLF:   EJam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front

EPROM:  Erasable, Programmable Read Only Memory

EPZ:      Export Processing Zone ER: Eastern Railway ERM: Exchange Rate Mechanism

ERNET:  Educational and Research Network

ERS:      European Remote Sensing (satellite)

ESA:      European Space Agency

ESC:      Electronics and Computer Software Export Promotion Council

ESCAP:   Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

ESIC:     Employees’ State Insurance Corporation

ESMA:    Essential Services Maintenance Act

ESP:      Extra Sensory Perception

EST:      Eastern Standard Time

Est:       Established

ETA:      Euskadi to Askalasuma (a terrorist organisation in Spain)

etc:        etcetera (and other)

ETT:      Embryo Transfer Technology

ETTDC:  Electronics Trade and Technology Development Corporation

ETV:      Educational Television

EURATOM: European Atomic Community

EUTELSAT: European Telecommunications Satellite

EVM:      Electronic Voting Machine

EVR:      Electro video Recording

EW:       East-West



FACT:    Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore limited

FACTS : Fingerprint Analysis and Criminal Tracing System

FAO:      Food and Agriculture Organisation (of United Nations)

FBI:       Federal Bureau of Investigation (of I’SA)

FBTR:    Fast Breeder Test Reactor

FBW:     Fly-By-Wire

FCI:       Food Corporation of India

FCNRA:  Foreign Currency Non-Resident Account

FCRA:    Foreign Contribution Regulation Act

FDI:       Foreign Direct Investment

FEDEX:   Federal Express

FEMA:    Foreign Exchange Management

FERA:     Foreign Exchange Regulation Act

FICCI:    Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry       .        

FIDE:     Federation International D’Eches (International Chess Federation)

FIEO:     Federation  of Indian Exports Organisations

FIFA:     International Football Federation

FIH:       International Hockey Federation

FII:        Foreign Institutional Investors

FIPB:     Foreign Investment Promotion Board

FIPC:     Foreign Investment Promotion Council    

FIR:       First Information Report

FIRE:     Fully Integrated Robotised Engine

FLAG:     Fibre-optic Link Around the Globe

FM:       Field Marshal

FMCT:    Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty

FMD:      Foot and Mouth Disease f.o.b.: free on board for  free on rail

FORE:    Foundation for Organisational Research and Education

FPS:      Foot-Pound-Second (Units of measurement); Fare Price, Shop

FRCP:     Fellow of Royal College of Physicians

FRCS:     Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons

FRGS:    Fellow of Royal Geographical Society

FRN:      Floating Rate Note

FRS:      Fellow of Royal Society

FTII:      Films and. Television institute 01 India

FTP :      File Transfer Protocol

FTS:      Foreign Travel Scheme

FTU:      Free Trade Union

FTZ:      Free Trade Zone



GAAP:      Generally Accepted Accounting Practices

GAEL:       Global Alliance for The Elimination of Leprosy  

GAIL:       Gas Authority of India Limited

GAP:        Ganga Action Plan

GATE:      Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering

GATT:      General Agreement on Tariff and Trade

GB:          Great Britain

GCC:        Gulf Cooperation Council

GCF:        Greatest Common Factor

GCM:       Greatest Common Measure; General Court Martial

GCMMF :  Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation

GDI:         Gender-related Development Index

GDP:        Gross Domestic Product

GDR:        German Democratic Republic (East Germany); Global Depository Receipt

GEDIS:     Gateway Electronic Data Interchange Services

GEF:        Global Environment Facility

GEM:        Gender Empowerment Measure

GHC:        Gorkha lull Council

GHQ:        General Headquarters

GI:          Government Issue; General Issue

GIAS:       Gateway Internet Access Services

GIC:         General Insurance Corporation

GIDC:       Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation

GIEC:       Global Indian Entrepreneurs Conference

GIS:         Global Information System

GIST:       Graphics and Intelligence-based Script Technology

GLOBE:     Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment

GM:         General Manager. General Motors

GMAT:      Graduate Management Admission Test

GMDSS:    Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

GMPS:      Global Mobile Personnel Communications System

GMRT:      Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

GMT:       Greenwich Mean Time

GMUNET:  Global Mega University Net

GNLF:       Gorkha National Liberation Front

GNP:        Gross National Product

GOC:        General Officer Commanding

GOI:        Government of India

GOP:        Grand Old Party

Govt:       Government

GPF:        General Provident Fund; Gandhi Peace Foundation

GPO:        General Post Office

GPRS:      General Pocket Radio System

GRAM:      Geo Reference ‘ Area Management

GRE:        Graduate Record Examination

GRT:        Gross Rated Tonnage

GSI:         Geological Survey of India

GSLV:      Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

GSM:       Global System for Mobile Communication

GSP:      Generalised System of Preferences

GSTP:    Global System of Trade Practices

GTICL :   Gas Transportation & infrastructure Co. Ltd.



HAI:       Health Action International

HAL:      Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

HC:        House of Commons; High Court

HCF:      Highest Common Factor

HDI:       Human Development Index

HDML:    Hyper Devices Markup Language

HE:        His Excellency; Her Excellency

HEH:      His/Her Exalted Highness

HEMRL:   High Energy Materials Research Laboratory

HESSI:   High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

HF:        High Frequency

HG:        His/Her Grace

HH:        Her Highness; His Highness; His Holiness

HHEC:    Handicrafts and Handloom Exports Corporation

HISA:     Hero Indian Sports Academy

HITEC:   Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy

HIV:      Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HLC:      Humanitarian Law Commission (Red Cross)

HM:       Her Majesty. His Majesty

HMI:      Himalayan Mountaineering Institute

IIMT:     Hindustan Machine Tools; Head Micro Telephone

HMY:     His Master’s Voice

HP:        Harmonic Progression: Himachal Pradesh

hp:        horse power

HPU:      Hill People’s Union

HQ:       Headquarters

Hr:        Hour

HRD:      Human Resource Development

HRH:      His Royal Highness: Her Royal Highness

HSD:      High Speed Diesel

HSL:      Hindustan Steel Limited

HSRRSS: high Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Satellite

HSTS:    High Speed Tram System

HT:        high Tension

HTCG :   High Technology Cooperation Group

HTML:    Hyper Text Markup Language

HTR:      High Temperature Reactor

http:      hypertext Transfer Protocol

HUDCO:  Housing and Urban Development Corporation

HV:        High Voltage

HVNET:  High Speed VSAF Network

HZL:      Hindustan Zinc Limited



I & B:     Information and Broadcasting

IA:        Indian Airlines

IAAF:     International Amateur Athletic Federation

IAAS:     Indian Audit and Accounts Service

IAC:       Indian Airlines Corporation

IAEA:     International Atomic Energy Agency

IAF:       Indian Air Force

IAMC:    Indian Army Medical Corps

IAMR:     Institute of Applied Manpower Research

IARI:      Indian Agricultural Research Institute

IAS:       Indian Administrative Service

IASRI:    Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute

IATA:     International Air Transport Association

IATP:     Income Adjusted to Total Population

ib, ibid:  Ibidem (in the same place)

IBEF:     India Brand Equity Fund

IBM:      International Business Machines: Indian Bureau of Mines

IBRD:     International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

ICAA:     international Civil Airports Association

ICADR:  The International Centre for Alternate Dispute Resolution

ICAI:      Institute of Chartered Accountants of India

ICAO:     International Civil Aviation Organisation

ICAR:     Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ICBL:     International Campaign to Ban Landmines

ICBM:    Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile

ICC:      International Chamber of Commerce; International Control Commission;

             International Cricket Council

ICCR:     Indian Council for Cultural Relations

ICCS:     International Commission of Control and Supervision    

ICCW:    Indian Council of Child Welfare

ICDS:     Integrated Child Development Scheme   

ICE:       InfoTech Communications And Entertainment    

ICFTU:   International Confederation of Free Trade Unions        

ICHR:     Indian Council of Historical Research      

ICICI:     Industrial Credit and investr~1ent Corporation of India

ICJ:        International Court of Justice’    

ICMR:     Indian Council of Medical Research        

ICOR:     International Capital Output Ratio

ICPD:      International Conference on Population and Development      

ICRA:      Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India     

ICRC:      International Committee of Red Cross   

ICRIER:   Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations        

ICRISAT: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics       

ICS:        Indian Civil Service          

ICSI:       Institute of Company Secretaries of India       

ICSSR:    Indian Council of social Sciences Research      

ICSW:     Indian Council of Social Welfare 

ICW:       International Council of Women  

ICWA:     Indian Council of World Affairs   

IDA:       International Development Agencies.     

IDBI:      Industrial Development Bank of India     

IDC:       Industrial Development Corporation       

IDD:       International Direct Dialing

IDE:       Integrated  deice Electronics

IDPL:      Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited

IDRC:     International Development Research Centre

IDSA:     Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis

ie:          id est  (that is)

IELTS:    International English Language Testing System

IES:       Indian Economic Service

IETE:     Institution of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineers

IFA:       Indian Football Association

IFAD:     International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFC:       Industrial Finance Corporation: international Finance Corporation

IFCI:      Industrial Finance Corporation of India

IFCS:     International Federation of Company Secretaries

IFFCO:   Indian Farmers Fertilisers Corporation Limited

IFFI:      International Film Festival of India

IFP:       Inkatha Freedom Party

IFRI:      Indian Forest Research Institute

IFS:       Indian Foreign Service; Indian Forest Service

IFTU:     International Federation of Trade Unions

IFWJ:     Indian Federation of Working Journalists

IG:         Inspector-General

IGCAR:   Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research

IGIA:      Indira Gandhi International Airport

IGMDP:   Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

IGNCA:    Indira  Gandhi National Centre for Arts  

IGNFA:   Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy

IGNOU:   Indira Gandhi National Open University

IGNP:     Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana

IHF:        Indian Hockey Federation

IIAS:       Indian institute of Advanced Studies

IIFT:      Indian Institute of Foreign Trade

IIIT:        Indian Institute of Information Technology

TIMC:      Indian Institute of Mass Communications

IIP:          Indian Institute of Petroleum

IIPA:        Indian Institute of Public Administration

IIPA:        International Intellectual Property Alliance

IIRS:        Indian Institute of Remote Sensing

IISS:       International Institute of Strategic Studies

IIT:         Indian Institute of Technology

ILA:        International Law Association

ILO:        International Labour Organisation

ILS:        Instrument Landing System

IMAP:      Internet Mail Access Protocol

IMC:       Indian Medical Council

IMDT:     Illegal Migrants Determination by Tribunal Act

IMEWS:   Integrated Missile Early Warning Satellites

IMF:        International Monetary Fund

IMPPA:    Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association

IMPRES:  Integrated Multi-train Passenger Reservation System

IMS:       Indian Medical Service

IMT:       Institute of Management and Technology

IMY:       Indira Mahila Yojana

IN:        Indian Navy

INA:       Indian National Army; Iraqi News Agency

INFINET: Indian Financial Network

INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network Centre

INL:           Indian National League

INMARSAT: International Maritime Satellite Organisation

INMAS:      Institute of Nuclear Medicines and Allied Sciences

INPEX:       Indian National Philatelic Exhibition

INS:           Indian Newspaper Society: Indian Navy Ship

INSA:         Indian National Science Academy

INSAT:       Indian National Satellite

INTACFI:    Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage

INTELEX:    International Teleprinter Exchange

INTELSAT:  International Telecommunication Satellite Consortium

INTERPOL:  International Criminal Police Organisation

INTUC:       Indian National Trade Union Congress

IOA:           Indian Olympic Association

IOC:           International Olympic Committee; Indian Oil Corporation

IOCOM:      Indian Ocean Commonwealth

[OR-ARC:   Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation

IOSCO:      International Organisation of Securities Commission

IOU:          I owe you

IP:             Internet Protocol

IPBA:         Inter-Pacific Bar Association

IPC:           Indian Penal Code

IPCL:         Indian Petro-chemicals Corporation Limited

IPEC:         International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

IPKF:         Indian Peace Keeping Force

IPO:          Initial Public Offering

IPR:          Intellectual Property Rights

IPS:          Indian Police Service

IPSA:        International Peace & Security Advancement

IPU:          International Parliamentary Union IQ: Intelligence Quotient

IRA:          Irish Republican Army; Insurance Regulatory Authority

IRBM:        Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile

IRC:          International Red Cross

IRCI:         International Reconstruction Corporation of India -

IRCON:      Indian Railway Construction Company

IRCS:        International Red Cross Society

IRDA:        Insurance Regulatory Development Authority

IRDP:        Integrated Rural Development Programme

IREDA:      Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency

IRNA:        Iranian News Agency

IRRI:         International Rice Research Institute

IRS:         Indian Remote Sensing (satellite)

IRSE:        Indian Railway Service of Engineers

ISAF:        International Security Assistance Force

ISB:          Indian School of Business

ISBA:        International Sea-Bed Authority

ISBN:        International Standard l3ook Number

ISC:         Indian Science Congress

ISCON:      Indian Steel Construction Company

ISD:          International Subscriber Dialing

ISDN:        Integrated Services Digital Network

ISI:          Indian Standards Institute; Inter-services Intelligence (of Pakistan)

ISKCON:    International Society for Krishna Consciousness

ISO:         International Organisation for Standardisation

ISP:       Internet Service Provider

ISRO:     Indian Space Research Organisation

ISS:       Islamic Sevak Sangh

IST:       Indian Standard Time

ISTRAC: ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Centre

ITBP:     Indo-Tibetan Border Police

ITDC:     India Tourism Development Corporation

ITES:     Infotech Enabled Services

ITI:       Indian Telephone Industries; Industrial Training Institute

ITO:      Income Tax Officer; International Trade Organisation

ITPO:     Indian Trade Promotion Oganisation

ITR:       Interim Test Range

ITU:       International Telecommunication Union

IUCD:     Intra-Uterine contraceptive device

IUML:     Indian Union Muslim League

IUPEP:    Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme

IVF:       In-Vitro Fertilisation

IWAI:     Inland Waterways Authority of India

TWDP:   Integrated Watershed Development Programme

IWRS:    Isolated Word Re-organisation System

IYC:       Indian Youth Congress



J&K:       Jammu and Kashmir

JAAC:     Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council

JANAM:  Jan Natya Manch

JBRI:      Japanese Bond Research Institute

JCC:      Junior Chamber of Commerce

JCO:      Junior Commissioned Officer        

JEIH:     Jamaat-e-Tslami Hind       

JIPMER: Jawaharlal lnstittite of Postgraduate1 Medical Education & Research (Pondicherry)

JKLF:     Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front

JMM:      Jhatkund Mukthi Morcha

JNU:      Jawaharlal Nehru University

JP:         Janatha Party, Jayprakash Narayan; Justice of Peace

JPC:       Joint Parliamentary Committee

JRC:       Junior Red Cross

JRY:       Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

JVM:      Janata Vidyarthi Morcha

JVP:       Janata Vimukthi Peramuna

KANU:    Kenya African National Union

KAVAL:   Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Agra and Lucknow

KBE:      Knight of British Empire

KC:        King’s Counsel

KCP:      Karnataka Congress Party

Kg:        Kilogram

KG:        Kindergarten

KGB:      Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty (Committee for State Security)

KKK:      Ku-Klux-Klan

KMBY:    Khetihar Mazdoor Bima Yojana

KMT:      Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of Taiwan)

KRC:      Konkan Railway Corporation

KVA:      Kilo-Volt-Ampere

KVIC:     Khadi and Village Industries Commission

KVS:      Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

Kw:       Kilowatt


L:          50 (in Roman numerals)

LAC:      Line of Actual Control      

LAN:      Local Area Network

LASER:   Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation 

lbw:       leg, before wicket (in cricket)     

LCA:      Light combat Aircraft

LCD:      Liquid Crystal Display; Least Common Denominator

LCM:      Lowest  Common Multiple.

LDC:      Least Developed Countries; Lower Division Clerk

LED:      Light  Emitting Diode

LEE:       Licentiate in Electrical Engineering

LERMS:   Liberalised Exchange Rate Management Scheme

LES:      Lunar Escape System

LH:        Left hand

LIC:       Life Insurance Corporation

LIPS:      Language Independent Programme Sub-titles

LL D:      Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws)

LLB:       Legum Baccalareous (Bachelor of Laws)

LLM:      Master of  Laws

LM:        Lunar Module

LME:      Licentiate in Mechanical Engineering

LMG:      Light Machine Gun

LNG:      Liquefied Natural Gas

LOAC:     Line of Actual Control

Loc cit:   loco citato (at the p~ace1uoted)

LoC:       Line of Conti~o1.

LPG:      Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPT:      Licentiate in Printing technology

LSA:      Lok Shakti Abhiyan

LSD:      dextro-lysergic acid diethylamide(hallucinogen)

Lt. Col:  Lieutenant Colonel

Lt:         Lieutenant

LTC:      Leave Travel Concession

Ltd:       Limited

LTTE:     Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

LZ:        Landing Zone



M.Ed.:    Master of Education

M. Sc.:   Master of Science

M:         1000 (in Roman numerals)

M.A.:     Master of Arts

MAC:     Multi-Agency Centre -

MAD:     Mutual Assured Destruction

MA!:      Multilateral Agreement on Investment’

MAI:      Manufacturers’ Association of Information Technology

MAMC:   Mining and Allied Machinery Corporation

MASER:  Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

MAT:     Management Aptitude Test, Minimum Alternate Tax

MBA:      Master of Business Administration

MBBS:    Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

MBFC:    Mutual Benefit Financial Company

MBRS:    Multi-Barrel Rocket System

MBT:      Main Battle Tank

MC:       Master of Ceremonies; Municipal Commissioner;

             Municipal Committee; Medical Certificate

MCA:     Monetary Compensatory Account; Master of Computer Application

MCC:     Marylebone Cricket Club; Missile Control Centre

MCD:     Municipal Corporation of Delhi

MCI:      Medical Council of India

MCOCA:  Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act

MD:       Managing Director; Doctor of Medicine

MDA:     Market Development Assistance MDMA : Multi Disciplinary Monitoring Agency

MDMK:   Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

MDS:     Master of Dental Surgery

ME:       Mechanical Engineer

MEA:      Ministry of External Affairs

MECON:  Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants

MES:      Military Engineering Service

MFA:      Multi-Fibre Agreement

MFN:      Most Favoured Nation

MI:        Military Intelligence

MIBOR:   Mumbai Inter-Bank Offered Rate

MIC:      Methyle isocyanate

MIGA:    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

MISA:    Maintenance of Internal Security Act

MLA:      Member of Legislative Assembly: Money Laundering Act

MLC:      Member of Legislative Council

MMDS:   Multi-Channel Microwave Distribution System

MMMF:   Money Market Mutual Fund

MMS:     Multimedia Messaging Service

MMT:     Million Metric Tonnes

MMTC:   Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation

MNAMS: Member of the National Academy of Medical Sciences

MNC:     Multinational Corporation

MNF:      Mizo National Front

MNNA :  Major Non-NATO Ally

MO:       Money Order; Medical Officer

MODEM: Modulator demodulator

MODVAT: Modified Value Added Tax

MONEX:  Monsoon Experiment

MOU:     Memorandum of Understanding

MOX:     Mixed Oxide Fuel

MP:       Member of Parliament; Military Police; Madhya Pradesh

MPA:      Master of Public Administration

MPF:      Multinational Protection. Force

MPFI:     Multiple Fuel Infection System

mpg:     mules per gallon     

mph:     miles per hour

MPLADS: Member of Parliament Local Aiea Development Scheme

mps:      metres per second

mps:      metres per second

MQM:     Mohajir Quami Movement (of Pakistan)   

MRA:      Moral Re-armament         

MRAS:    Member of the Royal Academy   Sciences

MRCP:    Member of Royal College of Physicians

MRCS:    Member of Royal College of Surgeons     

MRCVS:  Member of Royal College of ~Veterinary Surgeons       

MRD:      Movement for Restoration of Democracy (in Pakistan)  

MRTPC:   Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission         

MRTS:     Mass Rapid Transit System       

MRVC:     Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation        

MSS:       Manuscripts        

MSW:      Master of Social Work    

MSY:       Mahila Sainriddhi Yojna   

MTCR:     Missile Technology Control Regime

MTV:       Music Television  

MVC:       Maha Vir Chakra  



N & Q:     Notes and Queries

N’CYP:     National Centre of Films for Children and Young People-        

NAAI:      National Airport Authority of India        

NABARD: National Bank for   Agriculture and Rural Development  

NAC :      National Advisory Council

NAECL:    National Authority on Elimination of Child Labour

NAFED:    National Agricultural Co- operative Marketing Federation of India Ltd.

NAFTA:    North America Free Trade Agreement

NALCO:    National Aluminium Company Limited

NAM:       Non-Aligned Movement

NAMS:     National Academy of Medical Science

NAPP:      Narora Atomic Power Plant

NARO:     National Amnesty and Redemption Organisation

NASA:      National Aeronautics and Space Administration (of U.S.A.)

NASDAQ:  National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation

NASSCOM: National Association of Software and Service Companies

NATO:       North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

NAV:         Net Asset Value

NAWO:      National Alliance for Women

NAYE:       National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs

NB:           nota bene (mark well)

NBA:         Narmada Bachao Andolan

NBCC:       National Building Construction Corporation

NBDB:       National Book Development Board

NBFC:       Non-banking Finance Company

NBT:         National Book Trust

NCA:         National Commission on Agriculture

NCAER:     National Council of Applied Economic Research

NCB:         Narcotics Control Board

NCBC:       National Commission for Backward Classes               

NCBE:      National Confederation of Bank Employees

NCC:        National Cadet Corps

NCDC:     National Coal Development Corporation 

NCERT:    National Council of Educational Research and Training

NCL:        National Centre for Labour

NCNA:      New China News Agency

NCO:        Non-Commissioned Officer       

NCRB:      National Capital Region Board    

NCSC & ST: National Commission for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes       .

NCST:       National Committee of Science and Technology:

                National Conference on Science and Technologies

NCTE:       National Council for Teachers Education

NCW:        National Commission on Women

NDA:         National Defence Academy; National Democratic Alliance     

NDC:        National Development Council   

NDDB:      National Dairy Development Board       

NDFB:       National Democratic Front of Bodoland

NDMA :     National Disaster Management Authority        

NDMC:      New Delhi Municipal Committee 

NDRI:       National Dairy Research institute         

NDTF:       National Democratic Teachers Front   

NE:           North-East       

NEC:         North-Eastern Council   

NEDC:       National Economic Development Council        

NEEM:       National Elementary Education Mission

NEERI:      National Environmental Engineering Research Institute         

NEFA:        North East Frontier Agency     

NEHU:       North-Eastern Hill University    

NEP:         New Education Policy    

NER:         North Eastern Railway   

NES:         National Extension Service      

NEW:        Net Economic Welfare   

NF:           National Front   

NFAI:        National Film Archives of India 

NFC:         Nuclear Fuel Complex    

NFDC:       National Film Development Corporation

NFIR:        National Federation of Indian Railwaymen

NFR:         Northeast Frontier Railway

NFSIT:      The National Venture Fund for Software and IT Industries

NGO:        Non-Governmental Organisation

NGRI:       National Geophysical Research Institute

NHAI:       National Highway Authority of India

NHB:        National Housing Bank

NHPC:      National Hydro-electric Power Corporation

NHRC:      National Human Rights Commission

NIB:         National investment Bank

NIC:         National Integration Council; National Informatics Centre

NICD:       National Institute of Communicable Diseases

NICO:       New Information and Communication Order

NID:         National Institute of Designs. (Ahmedabad)

NIDC:       National Industrial Development Corporation

NIDS:       National Immunisation Days

NIEPA:      National Institute for Educational Planning & Administration

NIESBUD:  National Institute of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development

NIFT:         National Institute of Fashion Technology

NII:           National Institute of Immunology; National Information infrastructure

NIIT:         National Institute of Information Technology

NIM:          Nehru Institute of Mountaineering

NIMHANS:  National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences

NIO:          National Institute of Oceanography

NIOT:         National Institute of Ocean Technology

NIPFP:        National institute of Public Finance and Policy

NIS:           Netaji Subhash Institute of Sports

NISTADS:   National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies

NIV:           National Institute of Virology

NLF:          National Liberation Front (Vietnam)

NLM:          National literacy Mission

NLTA:        National Lawn Tennis Association

NMCC:        National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council

NMD:          National Missile Defence

NMDC:         National Mineral Development Corporation

NMEP:         National Malaria Eradication Programme

NMNH:         National Museum of Natural History

NMR:           Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

NNP:           National Nutrition Policy

NOC:           No Objection Certificate

non seq:     now sequiture (it does not follow)

NP:            Notary Public

NPC:          National Productivity Council

NPCC:        National Projects Construction Corporation

NPCL:         Nuclear Power Corporation of India

NPP:          National Perspective Plan

NPT:           Non-Proliferation Treaty

NR:             Northern Railway

NRA:           National Reconstruction Army

NRC:           Nuclear Regulatory Commission (of US); National Register of Citizens

NRDC:         National Research Development Corporation

NREGP:        National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme

NRF:           National Renewable Fund

NRHM :       National Rural Health Mission

NRI:            Non-Resident Indian

NRSA:         National Remote Sensing Agency

NRT :          Net Registered Tonnes

NRY:           Nehru Rozgar Yojana

NS:             North-South

NSA:           National Security Act; National Security Agency (of US)

NSAP:         National Social Assistance Programme

NSC:           National Security Council; National Saving Certificate

NSCI:          National Sports Club of India

NSCN:         National Socialist Council of Nagaland

NSD:           National School of Drama

NSEI:          National Stock Exchange of India

NSG:           National Security Guards

NSIC:          National Small Industries Corporation

NSS:           National Service Scheme

NSSO:         National Sample Survey Organisation

NSUI:           National Students Union of India

NTC:            National Textile Corporation

NTP:            National Temperature and Pressure

NTPC:          National Thermal Power Corporation

NTS:            National Testing Service

NUJ:            National Union of Journalists

NVF:            National Volunteer Force

NWDA:         National Water Development Agency

NWGP:         National Working Group on Power

NWRC:         National Water Resources Council



O & M:          Organisation & Methods

OAPEC:        Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

OAS:            Organisation of American States

OBC:            Other Backward Classes

OBE:            Officer (or the Order) of the British Empire

OC:             Officer Commanding

OCS:            Overseas Communication Service

ODA:            Official Development Assistance

OECD:          Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development

OECF:          Overseas Economic Cooperative Fund

OEEC:          Organisation for European Economic Cooperation

OGL:            Open General Licence

OIC:            Organisation of Islamic Conference

0IDB:           Oil India Development Board

OIGS:           On Government of India Service

OIL:             Oil India Limited

OIP :            Office of the Iraq Programme

OK:              orl korrect (all correct, all right)

ONGC:         Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

op at:           opero citato (in the work cited)

OPCW :        Organisation for the Prohibition f Chemical Weapons

OPEC:          Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPECNA:       OPEC News Agency

OPF:            Ordnance Parachute Factory

OPV:            Oral Polio Vaccine

ORT:            Oral Rehydration Therapy

OSCE:          Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

OTCEI:         Over the Counter Exchange of India

OTS:            Officers’ Training School (military)

OXFAM:        Oxford Committee For Famine Relief

OYT:            Own Your Telephone

OYW:           Own Your Wagon



P&K:      Phosphate & Potash

P&T:      Posts & Telegraphs

PAC:      Public Accounts Committee;

             Provincial Armed Constabulary; Political Affairs Committee

PAL:      Phase Alternative Line

PAN:      Permanent Account Number

PATA:    Pacific Asia Travel Association

PBS:      Public Broadcasting Service

PBX:      Private Branch Exchange (telephone)

PC:        Privy Council; Petty Cash

PCC:      Pradesh Congress Committee

PCI:       Press Council of India

PCM:      Public Code Modulation

PCRA :   Petroleum Conservation Research Association

PCS:      Provincial Civil Service

PDA:      Personal Digital Assistant; Preventive Detention Act

PDPA:    People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan

PBS:      Public Distribution System

PEC:      Projects and Equipment Corporation

PEN:      Poets, Editors and Novelists Association

PERT:     Project Evaluation and Review Technique

PESB:     Public Enterprises Selection Board

PETA:    People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

PFC:      Power Finance Corporation

PFRDA:   Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority

PGA:      Parliamentarians for Global Action

PHC:      Primary Health Centre

PHDCCI: Progress, Harmony and Development Chambers of Commerce & Industry

PIA:       Pakistan International Airways

PIB:       Press Information Bureau

PIL:       Public Interest Litigation

PIM:      Personal Information Management

PIN-Code:      Postal Index Number Code

PIO:       Persons of Indian Origin

PLO:      Palestine Liberation Organisation

PLOTE:   People’s Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam

PLR:       Prime Lending Rates

pm:       post meridiem (after noon); post mortem

PM:       Prime Minister

PMG:      Post Master General

PML:      Pakistan Muslim League.

PMRTS:  Personal Mobile Radio Trunking  Services

PMUPEP: Prime Minister Urban Poverty Eradication Programme

PO:        Post Office; Postal Order

P0A:      Programme of Action; Power of Attorney

P0K:      Pakistan Occupied Kashmir

POTA:    Prevention of Terrorism Act

POW:     Prisoner of War

PP:        Particular Person; Public-Prosecutor

PPF:      Planet Protection Fund

PPP:      Pakistan People’s Party; Purchasing Power Parity

PRCL :    Pipavav Railway Corporation Ltd.

Pro tem: pro tempore (for the time being)

PRO:      Public Relations Officer

PROLOG: Programming Logic

Prox:      proximo (in the next month)

PS:        Postscript; Personal Secretary; Private Secretary

PSC:      Public Service Commission

PSLV:     Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

PT:        Physical Training

PTA:      Parent-Teacher Association; Pilotless Target Aircraft

PTBT:    Partial Test Ban Treaty

PTI:       Press Trust of India

PTO:      Please Turn Over

PUCL:     People’s Union of  Civil Liberties

PUDR:    The People’s Union for Democratic Rights - Explosive

PVC:      Param Vir Chakra; Poly Vinyl Chloride

PVSM:    Param Vishisht Seva Medal

PWD:     Public Works Department

PWG:     People’s War Group



QCT:      Quality Council of India

QED:      quod  erat demonstrandum, (Which was to-be-proved).

QEF:      quod  erat faciendum (which was  to be done)

QEI:       quod  erat inveniendum (which was to be found)

QMG:     Quarter Master General

QMT:     Quantitative Management Technique

QR:        Quantitative Restriction

Qr:        Quarter

qv:        quod vide (which see)



R&D:      Research and Development

RABMN:   Remote Area Business Message Network

RAD:       Research And Development

RADAR:   Radio Detecting and Ranging

RAF:       Royal Air Force (of UK); Rapid Action Force (India)

RAM:      Random Access Memory

RAW:     Research and Analysis Wing

RAX:      Random Access Exchange

RBI:        Reserve Bank of India

RBS :      Risk Based Supervision

RCC:      Reinforced Cement Concrete

RCI:       Rehabilitation Council of India

RD:        Refer to Drawer

RDA:      Rural Development Agency

RDSO:    Research, Designs and Standard Organisation

REACH:   Rehabilitate, Educate and Support Street Children

REC:      Rural Electrification Corporation; Regional Engineering College

REM:      Rapid Eye Movement

REP:      Replenishment Export Permit

RI:         Rigorous Imprisonment

RIA:       Radio Immuno Assay

RIMC:     Rashtriya Indian Military College

RIP:       Requiescat in Peace (May he or she rest in peace)

RIS:       Research & Information System for the non-aligned & other developing Countries.

RITA:     Regional Trade & Investment Agreement

RITES:   Rail India Technical and Economic Services


RJD:       Rashtriya Janta Dal

RJP:       Rashtriya Janta Party

RLEGS:   Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Scheme

RLM:      Rashtriya Loktantrik Morcha

RLO:      Returned Letter Office (formerly DLO—Dead Letter Office)

RMO:     Resident Medical Officer

RMS:      Railway Mail Service

RNA:      Ribonucleic Acid

RNO:      Resident Naval Officer

ROBERT: Rocket Borne Emergency Radio Transmitter

ROM:     Read Only Memory

ROO :    Rules of Origin

RPF:      Railway Protection Force

RPM:      Revolutions Per Minute

RPV:      Remote-controlled Pilotless Vehicle

RRB:      Rural Regional Bank

RRC:      Regional Reactor Centre

RSE:      Renewable Source of Energy

RSP:      Rourkela Steel Plant; Revolutionary Socialist Party

RSS:      Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh

RSVP:    Respondez sil vous plait (please reply)

RTA:      Railway Territorial Army

RTC:      Round Table Conference

RTG:      Radio-isotope Thermo-electric Generator

RTIA:     Regional Trade & Investment Area



SAARC:  South Asian Association fir Regional Cooperation

SAC:      Space Application Centre; Science Advisory Council

SACEPS: South Asia Centre for Policy Studies

SACODIL:      SAARC Consortium of Open & Distance Learning.

SAD:      Shiromani Akali Dal

SADCC:  South African Development Coordination Council

SADF:    South Asian Development Fund

SAEC:    South Asian Economic Community

SAFMA:  South Asia Free Media Association

SAFTA:  South-Asian Free Trade Agreement

SAHR:    South Asians Human Rights Forum

SAI:       Sports Authority of India

SAIDC:   South African Industrial Development Corporation.

SAIL:     Steel Authority of India Limited

SALT:    Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty

SAM:     Surface-to-Air Missile

SAPTA:  South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement

SARF:    South Asia Regional Fund

SARS:    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

SAS:      Subordinate Accounts Service. $mall Astronomy Satellite

SASEC:  South Asian Sub-regional Economic Co-operation

SASER:   Sound Amplification by stimulated Emission of Radiation

SAT:      Scholastic Aptitude Test

SATTE:  South Asia Travel and Tourism Exchange

SAVE:    SAARC Audio Visual Exchange

SC:        Scheduled Castes; Space Commission; Supreme Court; Security Council

SCBA:    Supreme Court Bar Association

SCI:       Shipping Corporation of India

SCOPE:  Standing Committee of Public Enterprises

SCUBA:  Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

SDI:       Strategic Defence Initiative

SDO:      Sub-Divisional Officer

SDR:      Special Drawing Rights

SEARCH : Society for Environmental Awareness. Rehabilitation for Child and Handicapped

SEATO:  South Fast Asia Treaty Organisation

SEBC:    Socially and Educationally Backward

SEBI:     Securities Exchange Board of India

SEMFEX: Self Employment for Ex-servicemen

SEMIBOMBLA: Scheme of the Economists for Monetary Immobilisation through Bond Medallions and Blocked Accounts

SENSEX: Sensitive Index (of share price)

SEPUR:   Self-Employment Programme for the Urban Poor

SER:      South Eastern Railway

SEWA:   Self-Employed Women’s Association

SEZ:      Special Economic Zone

SFC:      State Financial Corporation’ Strategic Forces Command

SF1:      Students Federation of India

SF10:     Serious Fraud Investigation Office

SGPC:    Shiromani    Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee

SHAR:    Sriharikota Tracking Station

SHCIL:   Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd.

SIA:       Singapore Airlines

SIAM :   Society’ for Indian Automobile Manufacturers

SIDBI:    Small Industries Development Bank of India

SIDC:     State Industrial Development Corporation

SIEMA:   Southern India Engineering Manufacturers Association

SIF:       Stock Index Futures

SIMI:     Students Islamic Movement of India

SIPRI:    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

SIT:       Special Investigation Team

SITA:     Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act

SITE:     Satellite Instructional Television Experiment

SLBM:    Sea-Launch Ballistic Missile

SLFP:     Sri Lanka Freedom Party

SLR:      Statutory Liquidity Ratio

SLV:      Satellite Launch Vehicle

SMART:  Small Missions for Advanced Research & Technology

SMS:     Short Messaging Service

SMTP:    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNIPES:  Society of National Institutes for Physical Education and Sports

SO:       Special Officer; Section Officer

SOS:      Save Our Souls—distress signal

SP:        Superintendent of Police

SPCA :   Society for the Prevention of   to Animals          

SPE:      Special Police Establishment       

SPG:      Special Protection Group    

SPIC MACAY: Society for the  of Indian Classical Music & Culture

SR:          Southern Railway; Supplementary Rules

SRAM:      Short Range Attack Missile         

SRI:         Systems Research Institute     

SRO:        Statutory Rules and Orders      

SSA :       Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan    

SSB:        Service Selection Board 

SSC:        Staff Selection Commission        

SSI :        Supplemental Security Income; Small Scale Industry

SSM:        Surface to Surface Missile         

SST:         Supersonic Transport   

ST:           Scheduled Tribes           

STARS:     Satellite Tracking and Ranging  Station

START:     Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

STC:         State Trading Corporation       

STD:         Subscriber Trunk Dialing (telephone); Sexually Transmitted Disease  

STEP:        Satellite Telecommunication  Experiment Project        

STF:         Special Trust Fund; Special Task Force

STPI:        Software Technology Parks of India      

SUNFED:   Special United Nations Fund br Economic Development        

SUV:        Sports Utility Vehicle        

SVP:         Saturated Vapour Pressure        

SW:          South-West        

SWAPO:     South-West Africa People Organisation

SWIFT:      Society for World-wide International Financial Transactions,

SWOT:       Strength,- Weakness, opportunities, Threats

SYL:          Sutlej-Yamuna Link (canaL)



TA:           Travelling Allowance; Territorial Army

TAB:         Tetanus anti-bacilli (for inoculation against tetanus)

TAC:         Technical Advisory Committee

TACDE:     Tactics and Aircraft Development Establishment

TAFE:        Technical and Further Education

TAFTA:      Trans-Atlantic Free Travel Agreement

TAPS:        Tarapur Atomic Power Station

TAX:          Trunk Automatic Exchange

TB:            Tubercle bacillus (Tuberculosis); Torpedo Boat

TC:            Transfer Certificate; Ticket Collector; Trusteeship Council

TCAS:        Tactical Collision Avoidance System

TCIL:         Telecommunication Consultants India Limited

TDA:          Trade Development Authority

TDMA:       Time Division Multiple Access

TDP:         Telugu Desam Party

TDS:         Tax-Deduction at Source

TDSAT:      Telcom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

TELCO:      Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company   

TELEX:       Teleprinter Exchange

TERI:         Tata Energy Research Institute

TERLS:       Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station

TFAI:         Trade Fair Authority of India

TFT:          Thin Film Transistor

TGS:         Trade Guarantee Scheme

THDP:      Tehri Hydro Development Project

THI:         Temperature Humidity Index

TIFAC:     Technology and Information Forecasting and Assessment Council

TIFR:       Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

TISCO:   Tata Iron and Steel Company

TMC:     Tamil Maanila Congress

TMO:     Telegraph Money Order

TNC:      Transnational Corporation

TNT:      Tri nitro toluene (explosive)

TNV:       Tripura National Volunteers

TOEFL:   Test of English as a Foreign language

TPDS:    Targeted Public Distribution System

TRACT:  Transportable Remote Area Communications Terminal

TRAI:     Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

TRIFED:  Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd.

TRIMS:   Trade Related Investment Measures

TRIPS:   Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights

TRP:      Television Rating Points

TRYSEM: National Scheme of Training for Rural Youth for Self-Employment

TTCI:     Tea Trading Corporation of India

TTD:      Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam

TTE:      Travelling Ticket Examiner

TULF:     Tamil United Liberation Front

TV:        Television

TWA:     Trans-World Airlines (of U.S.A.)



UAD:      United Akali Dal

UAE:      United Arab Emirates

UAPA:    Unlawful Activities (Prevention Act)

UAR:      United Arab Republic

UAV:      Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UC:        Upper Case (capital letter)

UDC:      Upper Division Clerk

UDF:      United Democratic Front

UDI:      Unilateral Declaration Independence

UFO:      Unidentified Flying Object

UGC:      University Grants Commission

UHF:      Ultra High Frequency

UK:        United Kingdom

ULF:      United Legislature Front

ULFA:     United Liberation Front of Assam

ULMS:    Undersea Long-range Missile System

ult:        ultimo (in last month)

UN:        United Nations

UNAEC:  United Nations Atomic Energy Commission

UNCED:  United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

IJNCHS:  United Nations Commission on Human Settlements

UNCIP:   United Nations Commission for India & Pakistan 

UNCITRAL:     United Nations Conference on International Trade Law

UNCLOS:        United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCNRSE:      United Nations Conference for New and Renewable Sources of Energy

UNCOD:         United Nations Conference on Desertification

UNCSTD: United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDC:           United Nations Disarmament Commission

UNDOF:         United Nations Disengagement Observer Force

UNDP:           United Nations Development Programme

UNEP:           United Nations Env4~nme::tProgramme

UNESCO:       United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UNFCC:         United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFPA:          United Nations Fund for Population Activities

UNHCR:         United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNI:              United News of India

UNIC:            United Nations information Centre

UNICEF:         United Nations Children’s Fund

UNIDO:          United Nations Industrial Development Organisation

UNIIMOG:      United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

UNIKOM: United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission

UNISCA:        United States Indo Commercial Alliance

UNISPACE:     United Nations Conference on Peaceful Uses of Space

UNITA:          Union for the Total Independence of Angola

UNMOVIC:      United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission

UNP:             United National Party (of Sri Lanka)

UNPROFOR:   United Nations’ Protection Force

UNSC:           United Nations Security Council

UNSCOM:       UN Special Commission

UNTAC:         United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia

UNTAG:         United Nations Transition Assistance Group

UPA:             United Progressive Alliance

UPC:             Under Postal Certificate

UPS:             Uninterrupted Power Supply

UPSC:           Union Public Service Commission

UPU:             Universal Postal Union

USA:             United States of America  

USAID:          United States Agency for International Development

USIS:            United States Information Service

USO:             Udaipur Solar Observatory

USOC:           United States Olympic Committee

USP:             Unique Selling Proposition

UTI:              Unit Trust of India



V:         Five (Roman numeral)

VABAL:   Value Based Advanced Licensing

VAM:     Virtual Area Network

VAT:      Value-Added Tax

VC:        Vice-Chancellor; Victoria Cross; Venture Capital

VCR:      Video Cassette Recorder

VCRC:    Vector Control Research Centre

VD:        Venereal Disease

VDIS:     Voluntary Disclosure Income Scheme

VECC:    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

VHF:      Very High Frequency

VHP:      Vishwa Hindu Parishad

VHRR:    Very High Resolution Radiometre

VHS:      Video Home System

VIP:       Very Important Person

VIRUS:   Vital Information Resources Under Siege

VOA:      Voice of America

VPP:      Value Payable Post

VRDE:    Vehicles Research and Development Establishment

VRS:      Voluntary Retirement Scheme

VSAT:    Very Small Aperture Terminal

VSNL:    Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited

VSP:      Visakhapatnam Steel Plant

VSSC:    Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre

VTEC:    Variable Value Timing and Lift Electronic Control

VTR:      Video Tape Recorder



WADA:     World Anti-Doping Agency        

WAP:       Wireless Application Protocol    

WAPCOS: Water and Power Development Consultancy Services (India) Limited 

WASME:   World Assembly of Small and Medium Enterprises

WAY:       World Assembly of Youth

WCAR:     World Conference Against        

WCD:       World Commission of Dams

WCO:       World Customs Organisation     

WEF:        World Economic Forum/World Environment Forum

WFP:        World Food Programme

WFS:        World Food Summit

WFTU:      World Federation of Trade Unions

WHO:       World Health Organisation

WILL:       Wireless in Local Loop

WIFO:       World Intellectual Property Organisation

WMA:        Ways & Means Advances

WMD:       Weapons of Mass Destruction  

WMO:       World Meteorological Organisation      

WOMFC:    World Mining Environment Congress

WOP:        Warrant of Precedence

WP:          Word Processor

WPI:         Wholesale Price Index

WR:          Western Railway

WSIS:       World Summit on Information Society

WTO:        World Tourism Organisation; and Trade Organisation

WWF:       World Wildlife Fund WWW: World Wide Web

WYS1WYG:    What You See You Get



XLRI:     Xavier’s Labour Relations Institute.

X-mas:   Christmas



YMCA: Young Men’s Christian Association

YWCA: Young Women’s Christian Association



ZANU:     Zimbabwe African National Union

ZAPU:     Zimbabwe African People’s Union

ZBB:       Zero-Based Budgeting

ZETA:     Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly

ZOPFAN: Zone Of Peace, Freedom And Neutrality

ZPG:       Zero Population Growth

ZS:         Zoological Society

ZSI:        Zoological Survey of India

ZUPO:     Zimbabwe United People’s Organisation